*Michael Fowler 1/16/08*

Classically, the force on a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields is given by the Lorentz force law:

_{}

This velocity-dependent force is quite different from the conservative forces from potentials that we have dealt with so far, and the recipe for going from classical to quantum mechanics—replacing momenta with the appropriate derivative operators—has to be carried out with more care. We begin by demonstrating how the Lorentz force law arises classically in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations.

Recall first (or look it up in Shankar, Chapter 2) that the
Principle of Least Action leads to the Euler-Lagrange equations for the
Lagrangian *L*:

_{}

The canonical momentum *p _{i}* is defined by
the equation

_{}

and the Hamiltonian is defined by performing a Legendre transformation of the Lagrangian:

_{}

It is straightforward to check that the equations of motion can be written:

_{}

These are known as *Hamilton’s
Equations*. Note that if the
Hamiltonian is independent of a particular coordinate *q _{i}*, the
corresponding momentum

For the conservative forces we have been considering so far,
*L* = *T* -
*V*, *H* = *T* + *V*,
with *T* the kinetic energy, *V* the potential energy.

Any dynamical variable *f* in the system is some
function of the *q _{i}*’s and

_{}

The curly brackets are called *Poisson Brackets*, and are
defined for any dynamical variables as:

_{}

We have shown from _{}

It is easy to check that for the coordinates and canonical momenta,

_{}

This was the classical mathematical structure that led Dirac to link up classical and quantum mechanics: he realized that the Poisson brackets were the classical version of the commutators, so a classical canonical momentum must correspond to the quantum differential operator in the corresponding coordinate.

The Lorentz force is velocity dependent, so cannot be just the gradient of some potential. Nevertheless, the classical particle path is still given by the Principle of Least Action. The electric and magnetic fields can be written in terms of a scalar and a vector potential:

_{}

The right Lagrangian turns out to be:

_{}

(*Note*: if you’re
familiar with Relativity, the interaction term here looks less arbitrary: the
relativistic version would have the relativistically invariant _{} added to the action
integral, where the four-potential _{} and _{}. This is the simplest
possible invariant interaction between the electromagnetic field and the
particle’s four-velocity. Then in the
nonrelativistic limit, _{} just becomes _{})

The derivation of the Lorentz force from this Lagrangian is
given by Shankar on page 84. We give the
(equivalent) derivation from the

Note that for zero vector potential, the Lagrangian has the
usual *T* -
*V* form.

For this one-particle problem, the general coordinates *q*_{i} are just the Cartesian
co-ordinates _{}, the position of the particle, and the _{} are the three
components _{} of the particle’s
velocity.

The important *new* point is that the canonical momentum

_{}

is no longer mass _{} velocity—there is an
extra term!

The Hamiltonian is

_{}

Reassuringly, the Hamiltonian just has the familiar form of kinetic
energy plus potential energy. However,
to get

_{}

where we have noted explicitly that the potentials mean
those at the position _{}* *of the particle
at time *t*.

Let us now consider

_{}

It is easy to see how the first equation
comes out, bearing in mind that

_{}

The
second equation yields the Lorentz force law, but is a little more tricky. The first point to bear in mind is that *dp*/*dt*
is *not *the acceleration, the *A* term also varies in time, and in a
quite complicated way, since it is *the field at a point moving with the
particle*. That is,

_{}

The
right-hand side of the second _{} is

_{}

Putting
the two sides together, the

_{}

_{} and the expressions
for the electric and magnetic fields in terms of the potentials, the Lorentz
force law emerges:

_{}

We make the standard substitution:

_{}

This leads to the novel situation that the velocities in
different directions *do not commute*.
From

_{}

it is easy to check that

_{}

To actually solve Schrödinger’s equation for an electron confined to a plane in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, it is convenient to use the Landau gauge,

_{}

giving a constant field *B* in the *z*
direction. The equation is

_{}

Note that *x* *does
not appear in this Hamiltonian*, so it is a cyclic coordinate, and *p _{x}*
is conserved. In other words, this

_{}

Operating on this wavefunction with the Hamiltonian, the
operator *p _{x}* appearing in

_{}

Where

_{}

We now see that the conserved canonical momentum *p _{x}* in the

_{}

The frequency is of course the cyclotron frequency—that of
the classical electron in a circular orbit in the field (given by _{}) .

Let us confine our attention to states corresponding to the
lowest oscillator state, _{}. How many such states
are there? Consider a square of
conductor, area _{}, and, for simplicity, take periodic boundary
conditions. The center of the oscillator
wave function *y*_{0} must lie between 0 and *L _{y}*. But remember that

_{}

So the total number of states _{}

_{}

where _{} is called the “flux
quantum”. So the total number of states
in the lowest energy level _{} (usually referred to
as the lowest Landau level, or *LLL*)
is exactly equal to the total number of flux quanta making up the field *B*
penetrating the area *A*.

It is instructive to find *y*_{0} from a purely
classical analysis.

_{}

_{}

These equations integrate trivially to give:

_{}

Here (*x*_{0}, *y*_{0}) are the
coordinates of the center of the classical circular motion (the velocity vector
_{}is always perpendicular to _{}) , and _{} is given by

_{}

(Recall that we are using the gauge _{}, and _{}, etc.)

Just as *y*_{0}
is a conserved quantity, so is *x*_{0}: it commutes with the Hamiltonian since

_{}

However, *x*_{0}
and *y*_{0} *do not commute with each other*:

_{}

This is why, when we chose a gauge in which *y*_{0} was sharply defined, *x*_{0} was spread over the sample.
If we attempt to localize the point (x0, y0) as well as possible, it is fuzzed
out over an area essentially that occupied by one flux quantum. The natural length scale of the problem is
therefore the magnetic length defined by

_{}

*References:* the
classical mechanics at the beginning is similar to Shankar’s presentation, the
quantum mechanics is closer to that in Landau.