Physics 152:  Heat and Thermodynamics

Michael Fowler, UVa.

PDF of complete set of Heat and Thermodynamics notes.


1. Heat and Temperature   PDF

Development of the concepts, some early applications, the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, calorimetry.

2. Heat Flow and Capacity  

First quantitative measurements of heat capacity, finding a surprising link to atomic theory.

3. Thermal Expansion and the Gas Law  PDF

Linear and volume expansion coefficients, pressure versus temperature for a gas, the Kelvin scale, the gas law.

4. Early Attempts to Understand Heat: The Caloric Fluid Theory, and Rumford's Experiment   PDF

Lavoisier suggests heat flow is a conserved fluid, like electricity. Carnot analyzes the steam engine using this idea, and reaches many of the right conclusions. Rumford manufactures cannons, and pours cold water on the caloric theory.

5. The Discovery of Energy Conservation  PDF

6. The Kinetic Theory of Gases  PDF

7. Ideal Gas Thermodynamics: Isotherms, Adiabats, Specific Heats  PDF

8. The Carnot Engine  PDF

9. The Laws of Thermodynamics and Limits on Engine Efficiency  PDF

10. Entropy  PDF

11. Entropy and the Kinetic Theory: the Molecular Picture  PDF

12. Molecular Collisions  PDF

13. Brownian Motion  PDF

14. Heat Transport  PDF

Applets and Spreadsheets

Carnot Cycle Applet

Kinetic Theory Applets:

One Atom Gas

Brownian Motion

Maxwell Molecular Speed Distribution


Kinetic Exponential Atmosphere


Spreadsheet for Isotherms and Adiabats

Spreadsheet for van der Waals Equation

Homework Problems and Study Sheet

Heat and Thermodynamics Homework Problems  PDF

Heat Essentials  PDF