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Physics 152:  Heat and Thermodynamics



Heat and Temperature   PDF

Development of the concepts, some early applications, the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, calorimetry.

Thermal Expansion and the Gas Law  PDF

Linear and volume expansion coefficients, pressure versus temperature for a gas, the Kelvin scale, the gas law.

Early Attempts to Understand Heat: The Caloric Fluid Theory, and Rumford’s Experiment   PDF

Lavoisier suggests heat flow is a conserved fluid, like electricity.  Carnot analyzes the steam engine using this idea, and reaches many of the right conclusions.  Rumford manufactures cannons, and pours cold water on the caloric theory.

The Discovery of Energy Conservation   PDF

The Kinetic Theory of Gases   PDF

Ideal Gas Thermodynamics: Isotherms, Adiabats, Specific Heats   PDF

The Carnot Engine   PDF

The Laws of Thermodynamics and Limits on Engine Efficiency   PDF

Entropy   PDF

Entropy and the Kinetic Theory: the Molecular Picture   PDF

Molecular Collisions    PDF

Brownian Motion    PDF

Heat Transport   PDF


Applets, Flashlets, Spreadsheets

Kinetic Theory Applets:  One Atom GasMany Atom GasBrownian MotionMaxwell Distribution.

Carnot Cycle Flashlet

Spreadsheet for Isotherms and Adiabats

Spreadsheet for van der Waals Equation


Homework Problems and Study Sheet

Heat and Thermodynamics Homework Problems    PDF

Heat Essentials   PDF